Free HTML5 Mobile Training From O’Reilly

Beginning on October 6, 2010, O’Reilly will offer a free 10-week HTML5 mobile course. The live sessions will be held each Tuesday at 3PM Pacific Time. It appears you can download the sessions at a later point but there will be a fee for the download.

Here’s an overview of what the instructor notes you will learn during the course:

  • Discover what’s new in HTML5, CSS3, and JavaScript for mobile development
  • Build your own Twitter App with these technologies
  • Create apps that detect the orientation of mobile devices
  • Use geolocation and maps in a location-based app
  • Enable mobile users to use your app offline
  • Use HTML5 web forms to create an address book app
  • Create drawings and animation with JavaScript and HTML5’s canvas element
  • Use HTML5’s audio and video elements to build a movie trailer app

You should have some basic knowledge of CSS and HTML for the course. They also recommend that you are on a Mac but you can participate if you use a PC or Linux.

MySQL Developer Training – Day 5

On day 5, we went through all of the rest of the material in the course. By the end of the day, we had been provided all of the information we should need in order to pass both MySQL Developer examinations. My notes from the final day of class follow.

Day 5

DECLARE statement

  • The declare statement defines items local to a routine
    • Local variables
    • Conditions and handlers
    • Cursors
  • Declare only allowed inside a BEGIN…END
  • Declarations must follow a specific order
    • Variables
    • Conditions – error handler – captures errors that occur in the procedure/function and determines how they should be handled
      • DECLARE condition_name CONDITION FOR condition_value;
      • SQLSTATE Condition value
        • DECLARE null_not_allowed CONDITION FOR SQLSTATE ‘23000’;
        • MySQL errors are strings, so they need to be quoted
      • Continue handler
        • A continue handler allows the procedure to continue even if the condition is met
      • Exit handler
        • An exit handler will stop the procedure/function when the condition is met (an error is generated)
    • Cursors
      • A control structure within stored routines for record retrieval
        • One row at a time
      • A cursor is basically a pointer pointing to the current row we are fetching
      • Cursors are mostly used within loops that fetch and process the rows
      • Asensitive – MySQL decides how to process the information that’s fetched
      • Read-only
      • Non-scrolling
        • The cursor strictly moves from one row to the next
        • You cannot skip records
        • You cannot go backwards
      • Cursors must be declared before declaring handlers
      • OPEN opens a previously declared cursor
      • FETCH
        • obtains the next row using the specified open cursor, and advances the cursor pointer
        • When there is no next row, an error will result
          • You would use that error as a condition to break out of the loop
      • A cursor is destroyed automatically at the end of the BEGIN…END block
      • If you choose to close the cursor ahead of time, you can use the CLOSE command
      • Prepared statements can only have one cursor, and it is not named
    • Handlers


  • Named database objects
  • Activated when

Creating triggers

  • CREATE TRIGGER trigger_name { BEFORE | AFTER }
    ON table_name
    INSERT INTO DeletedCity (ID, Name) VALUES (OLD.ID, OLD.Name);
  • OLD and NEW are keywords that can be used within triggers

Trigger error handling

MySQL handles errors during trigger execution as follows:

  • Failed BEFORE triggers
    • Operation on corresponding row is not performed
  • After trigger execution
    • BEFORE trigger events and the row operation will execute successfully in non-transactional tables
    • In transactional tables, a rollback of all changes made by the statement will occur

Disallowed statements

  • SQL prepared statements
  • Explicit or implicit COMMIT or ROLLBACK
  • Return a result set
  • Recursive – cannot modify a table that is in use (reading or writing)
    • These types of things must be taken care of in BEFORE statements, rather than AFTER statements, because the table will not yet be open at that point

Storage Engines

SQL Parser and storage engines

  • Client sends requests to the server as SQL
  • Two-tier processing
    • Upper tier includes SQL parser and optimizer
    • Lower tier comprises a set of storage engines
  • SQL itself is not engine-specific, generally
    • Some exceptions include COMMIT, ROLLBACK, CREATE TABLE (which needs an engine declaration and can allow foreign key information for transactional tables), etc.
  • Steps to parse and return
    • Parse
    • Optimize
    • Retrieve/Store
      • This is where things like ORDER BY, GROUP BY, etc. are performed
  • Storage medium
  • Transactional capabilities
    • InnoDB allows transactions while MyISAM does not
  • Locking
    • InnoDB locks on a row-by-row basis
    • MyISAM locks on a table-by-table basis
  • Backup and recovery
    • MyISAM allows you to physically copy individual tables, etc. from one place in your filesystem to another place
    • InnoDB stores its information for all databases on the server in a single file, so it is more difficult to copy individual items
  • Optimization
  • Special features
  • MySQL server operates same for all storage engines
    • SQL commands independent of engine

Available Storage Engines

  • MySQL provides and maintains several storage engines
  • Also compatible with many third party engines
  • MySQL developed:
    • MyISAM
      • Incredibly fast – even more so when you use compression, fixed-width columns and good indexing
      • Data stored in table
      • Table-level locking
      • Does not support transactions
    • Falcon
    • NDB/Cluster
    • Memory
      • Data is in memory
      • Fastest engine that exists, but nothing is stored anywhere on disk
    • Archive
      • Highly compressed
      • Only supports INSERT and queries
    • Federated
      • creates an alias of an existing database on a separate server
    • Blackhole
    • CSV
    • Example – doesn’t do anything, but is in the code to show people a template of how to create an engine
  • Third party engines
    • InnoDB
      • Transactional
      • Foreign key constraints
      • Row-level locking
      • Backups
    • solidDB
    • InfoBright BrightHouse
    • Nitro
    • PBXT

You can set the storage engine when creating a table, but you are not required to do so. If you do not specify the engine, it will be set to the database default

MyISAM Storage Engine

  • MyISAM is the MySQL default
  • Manages tables with specific characteristics
    • Represented by three files
    • Most flexible AUTO_INCREMENT
    • Fast, compressed, read-only tables save space
    • Manages contention between queries
      • By default, writing to disk takes precedence over reading from disk, but that can be overridden
      • SELECT statements can be set to a higher priority with the HIGH PRIORITY switch
      • UPDATE, DELETE and INSERT statements can be set to a lower priority with LOW PRIORITY
      • INSERT statements can also be set to an extremely low priority with DELAYED
    • Portable storage format
    • Specify number rows for a table
    • Disable updating of non-unique indexes and enable the indexes
      • Indexes of non-unique keys can be disabled so that the indexes are not re-created each time a row is changed. The indexes will be rebuilt when the keys are reenabled
    • Tables take up very little space
  • Three row storage formats
    • Fixed-row format
    • Dynamic row format
    • Compressed format
      • Tables must be deliberately compressed
      • Compressed tables are read-only
        • Tables must be decompressed to modify
      • Using the myisampack utility
        • Includes a mixture of “True” compression and a set of optimizations
        • Each record compressed separately with small cost to decompress
        • Must be performed on the host machine
      • Use myisamchk afterward to update the indexes
      • Always backup tables prior to running utilities
  • Table-level locking
  • Acquiring locks
  • Tables with no holes support concurrent inserts
    • If a table is completely defragmented, any number of inserts can all be performed at the same time
  • Tables with holes do not support concurrent inserts by default
  • Can change priority of statements that retrieve or modify data
  • Write request not processed until current readers finished

InnoDB Storage Engine

  • Manages tables with specific characteristics
    • Represented on disk by a .frm format file as well as data and index storage
    • Supports transactions
    • ACID compliant
      • Satisfies ACID conditions
      • General locking properties
        • Does not need to set locks to achieve consistent reads
        • Uses row-level locking per concurrency properties
        • May acquire row locks as necessary to improve concurrency
        • Deadlock is possible
      • Supports two locking modifiers
      • Repeatable Read isolation level allows modifiers
    • Auto-recovery after crash
    • MVCC and non-locking reads
    • Supports foreign keys and referential integrity
    • Supports consistent and online logical backup
  • Tablespace for storing all table contents together
  • Log files for recording transaction activity
  • Format file (.frm)
  • Logical storage area can contain multiple files
  • Table-specific file (.ibd)
    • –innodb-file-per-table
  • Manages InnoDB-specific log files
  • Log files used for auto-recovery

Memory Engine

  • Uses tables stored in memory
    • Tables are temporary
  • Must have fixed-length rows
  • Manages tables with specific characteristics
  • Formerly HEAP engine
  • Memory indexing options
    • Uses HASH indexes by default
    • BTREE is preferable for some operators
      • Ranges


  • Server processes queries more efficiently and performs better
  • Optimization strategies
    • Use indexing properly
      • Large tables require indexing for efficiency
      • Benefits of indexes
        • Contain sorted values
        • Use less disk I/O
        • Enforce uniqueness constraints
      • Downsides of indexing
        • Any time anything in the table is changed, the indexes have to be rebuilt
        • Can slow down some data manipulations
        • Uses additional space
      • Types of indexes
        • Three general types
          • Primary key
          • Unique
            • Allows NULLs, but other than that requires the value of the cell to be different than anything else in the column
          • Non-unique
            • Allows NULLs and allows duplicate entries
      • Primary versus unique
        • Primary cannot contain NULL
        • Only one primary key is allowed per table
      • Adding indexes
        • ALTER TABLE table_name ADD PRIMARY KEY(column_name);
        • CREATE INDEX index_name ON table_name(column_name);
      • Removing indexes
        • ALTER TABLE table_name DROP PRIMARY KEY;
        • ALTER TABLE table_name DROP INDEX index_name;
        • DROP INDEX index_name ON table_name;
        • DROP INDEX `PRIMARY` ON table_name;
          • PRIMARY must be contained within back tick quotes, because it is a name. If it is not within back ticks, it will be treated as a keyword that doesn’t belong in that syntax
          • PRIMARY is the official name of the primary key in a table
      • Using index prefixes
        • Several column types
        • Use only specified, leading part of column values
        • Can make the index work faster, because it only searches a specific portion of the column value
        • CREATE INDEX part_of_name ON customer (name(10));
        • Can be used on composite indexes, as well
          • INDEX (column_name1(15),column_name2(10))
      • You can show index information by using the SHOW INDEX command
        • Full text indexes
          • Only useful with MyISAM tables
          • Definition can be given with CREATE TABLE, ALTER TABLE, CREATE INDEX
          • Create index after table creation for large datasets
          • Use MATCH()…AGAINST() syntxt
          • SELECT title FROM books WHERE MATCH(title) AGAINST (‘prince potter’)
    • Well-written queries
      • Using EXPLAIN to determine query processing
      • Returns useful information
        • Shows if index is required
        • Shows if index is being used
        • Analyzes query rewrites
      • EXPLAIN works with SELECT queries
      • EXPLAIN for JOINs
        • Joins tend to increase amount of server processing
        • EXPLAIN can help reduce server impact
        • The type column indicates the join type
        • type column output
          • system
          • const
          • eq_ref
          • ref
          • ref_or_null
          • index_merge
          • unique_subquery
          • index_subquery
          • range
          • index
          • ALL
      • The extra column (page 21-22)
        • using index
        • where used
        • distinct
        • not exists
      • Inefficient query “extra” output
        • using filesort
        • using temporary
        • range checked for each record
      • Indicators of worst performance
        • using filesort
        • using temporary
      • Rewrite query and run EXPLAIN again
      • Efficiency principles
        • No indexed columns within an expression
        • Beneficial for joins that compare columns from two tables
        • Use same value as column data type
          • WHERE id=18 (if column is a number)
          • WHERE id=’18’ (if column includes strings)
        • Pattern matching
          • WHERE name LIKE ‘de%’
          • WHERE name >= ‘de’ AND name < ‘df’ – not as good as example above
          • WHERE name LIKE ‘%de’ – full table scan
        • Rewrite using a trigger that maintains an additional column
          • WHERE LENGTH(column)=5 – bad
          • WHERE column_length=5 – column_length is a separate column that’s been automatically generated to show the value that would be returned by LENGTH(column)
        • Reduce amount of output a query produces
          • Use the LIMIT clause
            • Reduces information going over the network
            • Allows server to terminate query processing earlier
          • Use the WHERE clause
          • More improvement with index or column
      • Techniques for updating tables
        • Use DELETE and UPDATE same as SELECT
        • Multi-row INSERT
        • INSERT INTO t (id, name) VALUES (1,’Bea’),(2,’Belle’),(3,’Bernice’);
        • Better performance with a transaction
        • LOAD DATA INFILE faster than multi-row INSERT
          • Even faster with MyISAM if you disable keys before running the file and enabling them when finished
        • Use REPLACE rather than DELETE plus INSERT
    • Generating summary tables
      • Select records to generate summaries
      • Summary table strategy
      • Several benefits to this strategy
      • Table-locking table will be available more
        • The use of the temporary table will not affect the original table from which it was derived
      • Consider making a memory table
      • CREATE TABLE ContinentGNP
        SELECT Continent, AVG(GNP) AS AvgGnp
        FROM Country GROUP BY Continent
      • Disadvantages
        • Values are only good until changed
        • Storing data twice
    • Choose best matching storage engine
      • Decide query types during table creation
      • Choose storage engine with locking level needed
      • InnoDB good for a mix of retrievals and updates
      • MyISAM table structure dependent on the higher priority between speed or disk
        • Choose fixed-length or variable-length according to needs
        • Use read-only tables if possible
      • CHAR columns take more space than VARCHAR
        • considerably faster in MyISAM, but CHAR is no different (in speed) than VARCHAR in InnoDB
      • Use Memory for temporary information

* Within a MyISAM table, you can temporarily disable all non-unique keys so that new indexes will not be built while they are turned off. Use the statement ALTER TABLE table_name DISABLE KEYS. You can turn them back on with ALTER TABLE table_name ENABLE KEYS.

MySQL Developer Training – Day 4

On day 4, we continued where we had left off on day 3. We covered subqueries, views, prepared statements, importing and exporting data, stored routines and some of the basic functions that are available within stored routines. My notes from day 4 follow.

Day 4


Subqueries are the reason behind the name “structured query language,” as subqueries are “structured queries”.

  • A subquery is a query nested inside another query
  • Enclosed inside parentheses in order to specify that the subquery should be completed first
  • SELECT Language
    FROM CountryLanguage
    WHERE CountryCode = (
    SELECT Code
    FROM Country
    WHERE Name=’Finland’);

Why use a subquery?

Result Table Types:

  • Scalar – Single row with a single column
  • Row – Single row with one or more columns
  • Column – Single column with one or more rows
  • Table – One or more rows with one or more columns
  • Empty – No row or column data

Correlated and non-correlated

  • Correlated
    • References outer query
    • Cannot stand alone
    • Tend to be inefficient from a time standpoint, as the engine has to go back and forth between the inner and outer query
    • Tend to be more RAM efficient than JOINs, because it does not have to store a separate memory table from which to pull the final results
    • SELECT Country.Name
      (SELECT COUNT(*) FROM City
      WHERE CountryCode=Country.Code)
      AS CityCount FROM Country;
  • Non-correlated
    • Does not reference outer query
    • Can stand alone
    • Ideally, a non-correlated subequery would only be read once
    • SELECT Name FROM City WHERE CountryCode IN
      (SELECT Code FROM Country
      WHERE Continent=’Oceania’);

Subquery placement

  • If you place a subquery in the “column” portion of the query, then you can return and use only a scalar result
    • SELECT name,
      (SELECT MAX(Population) FROM City
      WHERE City.CountryCode = Country.Code)
      AS LargestCity
      FROM Country LIMIT 8;
  • Inside the FROM clause, you could return and use a table result, which can also include column, row and scalar results
    • Every column must have a name
    • Subquery can be a table query
      • Even if all values are not used
    • The following example is not something we could return with a JOIN
      • SELECT AVG(cont_sum)
        FROM (SELECT Continent, SUM(Population) AS ContinentSum
        FROM Country
        GROUP BY Continent)
        AS t;
    • Any time you have a subquery in a FROM clause, you must alias the created table, even if you don’t use that alias name anywhere else in the query
  • In the WHERE clause, when using an “equals” comparison, you can return and use scalar or row results
    • In order to use row results, you would have to use a tupple
      • (SELECT x, y FROM mytable WHERE key = 5) = (value, value)
      • (x, y) = (z, a)
        • Either or both sides of the tupple equation can be subqueries, themselves
    • Compares outer query with subquery results to see if they are the same
    • SELECT Continent, Name, Population
      FROM Country c
      WHERE Population = (SELECT MAX(Population)
      FROM Country c2
      WHERE c.Continent = c2.Continent
      AND Population > 0

      • In the example above, you do not need the “> 0”, because simply stating the name of the column will evaluate as 0 or 1 (false or true)
  • In the WHERE clause, when using greater than or less than comparisons, you can only use and return a scalar result
    • SELECT
  • In the WHERE clause, when using IN, ALL, ANY, SOME, etc., you can use and return a table result (or any other type of result)
    • In order to use a table result, you would need to use a tupple
      • Using a tupple would look something like:
        WHERE CountryCode, Name, Population IN (SELECT Code, Name, Population FROM Country…)
      • A tupple will compare from left to right, matching the columns in the left list up with the columns in the results returned by the right set
    • SELECT Name, Population FROM City
      WHERE CountryCode IN(
      SELECT Code FROM Country
      WHERE Continent = ‘Europe’)
      ORDER BY Name LIMIT 10;
    • SELECT Name FROM City
      WHERE Population >
      ALL (SELECT Population FROM City
      WHERE CountryCode = ‘CHN’);

      • The example above will compare each result returned against all of the results returned in the subquery. If any of the results in the subquery do not match the criteria, the whole result will return false
      • The specific example above could have been optimized to read something like:
        • SELECT Name FROM City WHERE Population > (SELECT MAX(Population) FROM City WHERE CountryCode = ‘CHN’);
    • SELECT Name
      FROM Country
      WHERE Continent = ‘Europe’
      AND Code = ANY(SELECT CountryCode
      FROM CountryLanguage
      WHERE Language=’Spanish’)
      ORDER BY Name;
  • In the WHERE clause, when using EXISTS, you can only return an empty result set (you are simply checking to see if you get any results or not, you are not using any information from the query itself
    • In current versions of MySQL, this type of result is not optimized – MySQL will complete the subquery before returning 0 or 1 (true or false)
    • In future versions, this type of result should be optimized, so that the engine will stop the subquery as soon as a result is returned, and will then return a 1
    • SELECT Continent FROM Country WHERE EXISTS
      (SELECT * FROM City WHERE Code = CountryCode AND Population > 8000000)
      GROUP BY Continent;

      • Will return a list of each continent that contains at least one country with a population over 8000000
    • SELECT Continent FROM Country WHERE NOT EXISTS
      (SELECT * FROM City WHERE Code = CountryCode AND Population > 8000000)
      GROUP BY Continent;

      • Is not the opposite of the query above
      • Will return a list of each continent that contains at least one country with a population under 8000000

Other Subquery Uses

Using Subqueries in UPDATE and DELETE statements

You can use subqueries to locate rows on which you want to perform updates or you want to delete

  • Subqueries are not limited to SELECT statements
  • They can be used in DELETE and UPDATE statements
    • DELETE FROM City WHERE CountryCode IN (
      SELECT Code FROM Country WHERE LifeExpectancy < 70.0);
  • Generally, when dealing with DELETE and UPDATE statements, the subquery is used within the WHERE clause

Converting subqueries to JOINs

  • Joins can be more efficient than subqueries
    • Convert a subquery to a join if the subquery is running slowly
  • Subquery versus JOIN
    • Subquery:
      • SELECT Name FROM Country
        WHERE Code IN (
        SELECT CountryCode FROM CountryLanguage);
    • JOIN:
      • SELECT DISTINCT Name FROM Country
        JOIN CountryLanguage ON Code=CountryCode;


  • Database object defined in terms of a SELECT statement
    • SELECT statement masquerading as a table
    • Will stay in the database until it is destroyed
  • Selected from base tables or views
  • Updatable
  • Views are nestable

CREATE VIEW statement

  • Define a view
  • General syntax:
    • CREATE VIEW view_name AS select_statement
      • CREATE VIEW CityView AS SELECT ID, Name FROM City;
  • Optional parts of a CREATE VIEW statement
      • Will replace an existing view of the same name if it exists, will create a new view if not
      • MERGE
      • TEMPTABLE (TempTable)
        • Will create a temporary table if the view is too large to fit into RAM
    • DEFINER = { user | CURRENT_USER }
      • The definer, by default, is the person who created the view
    • column_list
      • By default, if the column_list is not specified, the names of the columns in the original table will be used as the column names in the view
      • You can optionally define new column names for each of those
      • CREATE VIEW v
        AS SELECT Country.Name AS CountryName, City.Name AS CityName
        FROM Country, City WHERE CountryCode=Code;
    • WITH CHECK OPTION (see insertable views below)
      • Places constraints on allowable modifications
      • Checks the WHERE conditions for updates
        • If the update or insert statement would result in something that would not be visible in the view, then the CHECK OPTION will stop the statement from being executed successfully
      • Example:
        • CREATE VIEW LargePop AS
          SELECT Name, Population FROM Country
          WHERE Population >= 100000000
        • SELECT * FROM LargePop;
        • UPDATE LargePop SET Population = Population + 1 WHERE Name=’Nigeria’

It is possible to update a table through a view

  • Can use UPDATE and DELETE
    • Updating and deleting information from a view will update or delete that information inside of the base table on which the view is based.
    • Information in the view does not actually exist in the view – it only exists inside the base table(s) on which the view is based
  • Must be one-to-one relationship
  • Updatability examples
    • CREATE VIEW EuropePop AS
      SELECT Name, Population FROM Country
      WHERE Continent = ‘Europe’;
    • UPDATE EuropePop SET Population = Population + 1 WHERE Name = ‘San Marino’;

Insertable Views

  • An updateable view can be insertable
    • Must meet additional requirements
    • No duplicate view column names
    • Must contain all columns from base table without default value
    • Cannot be derived columns (calculated, etc.)
  • Inserting views with AUTO_INCREMENT
    • LAST_INSERT_ID() will not work if the AUTO_INCREMENT column is not visible through the view

Checking Views

  • When you define a view, the object referenced must exist
  • A view can become invalid if a referenced object is removed
  • Using CHECK TABLE will show that the view is no longer valid

Altering Views

  • You can use ALTER VIEW to change an existing view
  • Is basically the same as CREATE OR REPLACE


  • Views table in database
    WHERE TABLE_NAME = ‘CityView’
    AND TABLE_SCHEMA = ‘world’\G

SHOW statements

  • Display Metadata
  • SHOW CREATE VIEW specifically for views

Prepared statements

  • Useful for running multiple similar queries
  • Can use same structure and change data values
  • Enhanced performance
    • Statement parsed only once by server
    • May require fewer conversions
    • Less traffic between server and client

Prepared statements from MySQL

  • Aids in testing and debugging
  • Session-bound
    • Prepared statements are tied to sessions and will be automatically destroyed when the session is closed
  • User defined variables pass values from one statement to another
    • Connection specific
    • Also known as @ variables
      • variables stay in RAM until the connection is closed
      • variables will not persist across connections
    • Use SET statement to define
    • Example syntax
      • SET @var_name = expr [, @var_name = expr]…
      • SET @myvar = 12, @myothervar = 5*2
    • Expression can evaluate to an integer, real, string or NULL
    • Coercibility is implicit
      • Uses the type of the string that we supply
      • If we do not supply a type, it will inherit the charset and collation of the connection
  • PREPARE my_stmt FROM
    ‘SELECT COUNT(*) FROM CountryLanguage WHERE CountryCode = ?’;
  • SET @code = ‘ESP’; EXECUTE my_stmt USING @code;
  • Using variables inside the prepared statement
    • You can have more than one question mark inside the prepared statement
    • They will be parsed in the order in which they appear within the statement
      • To supply multiple variables to be assigned to the multiple unknowns, you would separate the variable names with commas in the execute statement
  • If you want to destroy the prepared statement before closing the connection
    • DROP PREPARE my_stmt;
    • You do not have to use an unknown (question mark) inside a prepared statement

Preparing a statement

PREPARE namepop FROM ‘

SELECT Name, Population
FROM Country
WHERE Code = ?


  • Not all SQL statements can be prepared
  • Limited to the following
    • SELECT
    • Data modification: INSERT, REPLACE, UPDATE, DELETE
    • SET, DO and many SHOW statements
    • CREATE TABLE statements
  • As of MySQL 5.1, many more features were added

Exporting and Importing Data

Import Data using SQL


  • Imports data into a table from a file
  • Uses similar clauses and format specifiers as SELECT…INTO OUTFILE
  • MySQL assumes file is located on server host
    • In database data directory
  • Tab delimited or comma separated files
  • Characteristics to know about input file
  • CSV example:
    • LOAD DATA INFILE ‘C:/City.txt’ INTO TABLE City
      ENCLOSED BY ‘”‘
  • Specifying data file location as client host
    • You have to have the proper security permissions in order to do this
  • Skipping or transforming column values
    • LOAD DATA INFILE ‘C:/City.txt’ INTO TABLE City
  • Duplicate records
    • Can control duplicate records with IGNORE and REPLACE
    • Behavior differs slightly
    • IGNORE and REPLACE are mutually exclusive
      • REPLACE will delete the original record and create a new one with the new information if it finds a duplicated key
      • IGNORE will skip the new record if its key already exists in the table
  • To alter the structure of the data in order to make it fit into your table properly
    • LOAD DATA INFILE ‘C:/people.txt’ INTO TABLE People
      ENCLOSED BY ‘”‘
      (@skip, @firstname, @lastname, @date, address, email, …)

      • The items enclosed in parentheses above are in the order in which they appear within the data file that I’m loading
      • The items not preceded by @ symbols are the names of the columns in my table
      • The variable @skip in the example above is an undefined variable, which, by default, is equal to NULL
        • In this example, we are simply using that variable name to specify a column that does not need to be inserted into our table
    • SET Name = CONCAT(@lastname,’, ‘,@lastname),
      Birthdate = str_to_date(@date,’%b %e %Y’);

      • The date in the example above would have been in the format of Sep 6 2001

Export Data using SQL


  • Writes result set directly into a file
  • MySQL assumes filepath to be in database data directory, unless otherwise specified
    • Path is relative to the host machine on which the SQL server is running
  • SELECT * INTO OUTFILE ‘C:/City.txt’ FROM City;
  • INTO OUTFILE Changes SELECT Operation
    • File written to server host, instead of over the network to client
    • If the file already exists, this command will generate an error rather than overwriting or appending
  • Specifiers
    • Default is tab delimited with newline terminators
    • Can change specifiers for all columns
      • FIELDS TERMINATED BY ‘string’
        • defines data values within a line
      • ENCLOSED BY ‘char’
      • ESCAPED BY ‘char’
      • LINES TERMINATED BY ‘string’
    • Terminator definitions
      • \N – NULL
      • \O – NUL (zero) byte
      • \b – backspace
    • Line terminator specifiers
      • Newline character is the default
    • CSV format text file example
      • SELECT * INTO OUTFILE ‘C:/City.csv’
        ENCLOSED BY ‘”‘
        FROM City;

Export using the mysqldump database backup client

  • MySQL utility to export (dump) table contents
    • Full structure
    • Data only
    • Table structure only
    • In standard format
    • MySQL specifics for optimized speed
    • Compressed
  • Three ways to invoke mysqldump
    • mysqldump [options] db_name [tables]
    • mysqldump [options] –databases db_name1 [db_name2 db_name3…]
    • mysqldump [options] –all-databases
  • Can only be executed from the shell
  • Need to redirect the output into a file, otherwise it just prints the dump onto the screen
    • mysqldump -uroot -p<password> world >C:/world_dump.sql
  • File contains commands needed to recreate tables and data
  • Export to a specific table in a database
    • mysqldump -uroot -p<password> world CountryLanguage

Import using the mysqlimport client

  • MySQL utility to load data files into tables
  • Command line interface to LOAD DATA INFILE
  • mysqlimport options db_name input_file
  • Can only be executed from the shell
  • The table the information is being imported into must have the same name as the file you are loading from
  • Options
    • –help
    • –lines-terminated-by=string
    • –fields-terminated by=string…

Import data with the source command

  • Import table data
    • mysql -u root world < CountryLanguage.sql
    • Path is relative to the local machine
  • Loading the data
    • SOURCE C:/CountryLanguage.sql
    • Source uses a path relative to the client machine (your machine, not the server)
  • The default is to not write over existing databases, unless specified inside the script file that you’re loading

Stored Routines

What is a stored routine?

  • Set of SQL statements that can be stored in server
  • Types
    • Stored procedures
      • A procedure is invoked using a CALL statement, and can only pass back values using output variables
      • Procedures are database-specific
    • Stored functions
      • A function can be called from inside a statement and can only return a scalar value
      • Are invoked like a normal function
  • We use stored routines for the following reasons
    • Performance
    • Security
      • Minimal data access
      • Single location processing
    • Client applications
      • One application
      • One programming language
        • Instead of trying to translate your functions, etc. into each of the different languages you’re using to access the data, you can simply write it in MySQL as a stored routine
    • Function libraries
  • Stored routine issues
    • Increased server load
      • Because MySQL is doing all of the work, none of it is being passed off to other sources
    • Limited development tools
      • You can only use MySQL commands within your stored routines
    • Limited functionality and speed
      • There is no way to compile routines, etc.
    • No debugging/profiling capabilities
      • You can trace by downloading a specific version of the source and compiling it yourself, but that is not recommended

Creating Stored Routines

Create procedure

  • CREATE PROCEDURE procedure_name() procedure_statement
    • Single statement example:
    • CREATE PROCEDURE world_record_count ()
      SELECT ‘country count ‘,COUNT(*) FROM Country;

Create function

  • CREATE FUNCTION function_name() RETURNS return_type function_statement
    • Single parameter example
      • CREATE FUNCTION ThankYou(s CHAR(20)) RETURNS CHAR(50) RETURN CONCAT(‘Thank You, ‘,s,’!’);

Compound statements

  • Delimiter and BEGIN…END
    • DELIMITER // – sets the alias of the go command as “//”
      CREATE PROCEDURE world_record_count() – creates the procedure
      BEGIN – opens our list of commands
      SELECT ‘country count ‘, COUNT(*) FROM Country; – a statement that will be run
      SELECT ‘city count ‘, COUNT(*) FROM City; – another statement
      SELECT ‘countrylanguage count’, COUNT(*) FROM countrylanguage; – another statement
      END// – ends our list of commands and then tells the server to execute
      DELIMITER ; – sets the delimiter back to a semi-colon

Assign Variables

    • Declaring
    • Scope
      • Variables declared within a function definition are only valid within that function defnition
    • DELIMITER //
      CREATE FUNCTION add_tax (total_charge FLOAT(9,2)
      RETURNS FLOAT(10,2)
      DECALRE tax_rate FLOAT(3,2) DEFAULT 0.07;
      RETURN total_charge + total_charge * tax_rate;
      RETURN Fbill;
      END //
    • Global variables
      • SELECT SUM(population) FROM country INTO @worldpop;
        …is equivalent to…
        SELECT SUM(population) INTO @WorldPop FROM country;
      • SELECT SUM(population), AVG(population) FROM Country INTO @worldpop, @worldavg;
    • Local Variables
      • SELECT COUNT(*) FROM city INTO Total_Cities;
        …is equivalent to…
        SELECT COUNT(*) INTO Total_Cities FROM City;
  • SET
    • The SET statement allows the user to assign a value to a user defined variable using either = or := as the assignment operator

Variable Scope

  • Local Variable
  • Routine parameter
  • Local variable in an inner block
  • Local variable in an outer block
    CREATE PROCEDURE precedence(opal INT)
    SELECT opal FROM test_table;
    SELECT opal FROM test_table;
  • Variables must be defined immediately after the BEGIN statement in the block

Parameter declarations

  • Stored procedures
    • IN (Default)
      • Indicates an input parameter which is passed in from the caller to the procedure
    • OUT
      • Indicates an output parameter which is set by the procedure and passed to the caller after the procedure terminates
      • NULLs the variable when it’s passed to the function
      • Can be used to set a “success/failure” flag
    • INOUT
      • Indicates a parameter that can act as an IN and an OUT parameter
    • OUT and INOUT variables will be passed ByRef (meaning that anything that happens to the variable inside of the procedure will happen to the original variable)
  • Stored functions
    • For stored functions, only IN is available

Execute Stored Routines

  • Executing procedures
  • Executing functions
  • Implications of database association
    • You need to declare the appropriate database in which the routine is stored
    • If the database is deleted, the routine is deleted, too

Alterable stored routine characteristics

      • DEFINER
      • INVOKER
    • Data use (SQL)
      • NO SQL

Non-alterable stored routine characteristics

  • Non-alterable
      • The routine always produces the same result when invoked with a given set of input parameter values
    • NOT DETERMINISTIC (default)
      • The routines results can possibly change when invoked with a given set of input parameter values
      • Provides the parser with the programming language to use when parsing the stored routine created
      • This cannot change because MySQL is the only language available

Examine Stored Routines


Delete Stored Routines

DROP PROCEDURE [IF EXISTS] procedure_name;
DROP FUNCTION [IF EXISTS] function_name;

Flow control statements

  • Statements and constructs that control order of operation execution
  • Common flow controls
    • Choices
      • IF
        • IF(test condition) THEN

          ELSEIF(test condition) THEN


          END IF;
        • ELSEIF needs to be all one word
      • CASE
        • CASE provides a means of developing complex conditional constructs
        • CASE works on the principle of comparing a given value with specified constants and acting upon the first constant that is matched
        • CASE case_value
          WHERE when_value THEN


          END CASE;
        • CASE
          WHEN test_condtion THEN


          END CASE
        • If none of the cases are met and there is no “else” specified, it will throw an error
        • In the first example, it is strictly a binary comparison, meaning that case-sensitivity is a factor
    • Loops
      • REPEAT
        • The repeat statement repeats and SQL statement until the search condition that is set becomes true
        • A repeat statement is always run at least once
        • Labels: Begin and End
        • begin_label: REPEAT

          UNTIL test_condition
          END REPEAT end_label;
      • WHILE
        • WHILE repeats an SQL statement while a set condition is true
        • The statement list can consist of one or more statements
        • begin_label: WHILE test_condition DO

          END WHILE end_label;
      • LOOP
        • The statements within the loop are repeated until the loop is exited; usually this is accomplished with a LEAVE statement
        • begin_label: LOOP

          LEAVE label;
          END IF
          END LOOP end_label;
  • Other Label Flow Control Constructs
    • LEAVE
      • This statement is used to exit any labeled flow control construct within a LOOP, REPEAT or WHILE statement
      • LEAVE can also be used in Labeled BEGIN…END compound statements
      • This statement simply means “do the LOOP (or REPEAT or WHILE) again”

MySQL Developer Training – Day 3 – Second Half

During the second half of day 3, we began to delve into the information that will be presented on the MySQL Developer II examination. My notes from that session follow.

Day 3 – Second Half


  • Combining information from multiple tables
  • Three categories of joins
    • Inner join – identifies combinations of matching rows from two tables
      • SELECT * FROM m, w WHERE m.HHid = w.HHid; or SELECT * FROM m JOIN w ON m.HHid = w.HHid; will pull only matching records from each table:
      • +------+------+-------+------+ 
        | Name | HHid | Name  | HHid | 
        | Bob  |    1 | Carol |    1 | 
        | Ted  |    2 | Alice |    2 | 
      • SELECT * FROM m JOIN w USING (HHid); will combine the field “HHid” from both tables and move it all the way to the left of the resultset (will only work if the reference column is named the same in both tables)
      • +------+------+-------+ 
        | HHid | Name | Name  | 
        |    1 | Bob  | Carol | 
        |    2 | Ted  | Alice | 
      • SELECT * FROM m RIGHT JOIN w ON m.HHid = w.HHid WHERE m.Name IS NULL; will return all of the records from the right table (w) that do not have matches in the left table:
      • +------+------+-------+------+ 
        | Name | HHid | Name  | HHid | 
        | NULL | NULL | Sally |    4 | 
        | NULL | NULL | Ann   |    7 | 
        | NULL | NULL | Linda |    5 | 
    • Outer join – the same as inner join, but it also finds mismatches
      • SELECT * FROM m LEFT JOIN w ON m.HHid = w.HHid; will pull all of the information from the left table and any matching information from the right table. Any information that appears in the left table (m) that does not have a match in the right table (w) will be represented as NULL in the right side:
      • +------+------+-------+------+ 
        | Name | HHid | Name  | HHid | 
        | Ed   |    6 | NULL  | NULL | 
        | Ted  |    2 | Alice |    2 | 
        | Al   |    3 | NULL  | NULL | 
        | Bob  |    1 | Carol |    1 | 
      • SELECT * FROM m RIGHT JOIN w ON m.HHid=w.HHid; will pull all of the information from the right table (w) and any matching information from the left table (m). Any information that appears in the right table (w) that does not have a match in the left table (m) will be represented as NULL in the left side:
      • +------+------+-------+------+ 
        | Name | HHid | Name  | HHid | 
        | NULL | NULL | Sally |    4 | 
        | Bob  |    1 | Carol |    1 | 
        | Ted  |    2 | Alice |    2 | 
        | NULL | NULL | Ann   |    7 | 
        | NULL | NULL | Linda |    5 | 
    • Cross join – combines all of the records from one table with all the records of another table
      • SELECT * FROM m, w; will match all records in m table with all records from w table:
      • +------+------+-------+------+ 
        | Name | HHid | Name  | HHid | 
        | Ed   |    6 | Sally |    4 | 
        | Ted  |    2 | Sally |    4 | 
        | Al   |    3 | Sally |    4 | 
        | Bob  |    1 | Sally |    4 | 
        | Ed   |    6 | Carol |    1 | 
        | Ted  |    2 | Carol |    1 | 
        | Al   |    3 | Carol |    1 | 
        | Bob  |    1 | Carol |    1 | 
        | Ed   |    6 | Alice |    2 | 
        | Ted  |    2 | Alice |    2 | 
        | Al   |    3 | Alice |    2 | 
        | Bob  |    1 | Alice |    2 | 
        | Ed   |    6 | Ann   |    7 | 
        | Ted  |    2 | Ann   |    7 | 
        | Al   |    3 | Ann   |    7 | 
        | Bob  |    1 | Ann   |    7 | 
        | Ed   |    6 | Linda |    5 | 
        | Ted  |    2 | Linda |    5 | 
        | Al   |    3 | Linda |    5 | 
        | Bob  |    1 | Linda |    5 | 
  • Inner Join replaces comma separator (INNER JOIN is alias of JOIN, assuming the word “RIGHT” or “LEFT” does not precede the word “JOIN”)
  • Useful clauses
    • FROM
    • ON
    • USING()
    • WHERE
      • SELECT COUNT(*), Name
        FROM CountryLanguage INNER JOIN Country
        ON CountryCode = Code
        GROUP BY Name
        HAVING COUNT(*) > 10;
  • When retrieving information from multiple tables, you have to qualify any columns that might appear in multiple tables
  • Self Joins
    • Joining a table to itself is ambiguous and can generate multiple errors
    • To properly perform a self-join, you need to alias your tablename:
      SELECT t1.IndepYear, t1.Name, t2.Name
      FROM Country AS t1 JOIN Country AS t2
      ON t1.IndepYear = t2=IndepYear AND t1.Name = ‘Qatar’;

Once you specify an alias for a table, you must use the alias to refer to that table from there on out within the statement

Multi-table updates and deletes

MySQL allows join syntax in UPDATE and DELETE

  • UPDATE Operations
    • UPDATE t1, t2 SET WHERE;
  • DELETE Operations
    • DELETE FROM t1 FROM t1, t2 WHERE;
    • DELETE FROM t1 USING t1, t2 WHERE;
  • DELETE Operations that remove information from both tables
    • DELETE t1, t2 FROM t1, t2 WHERE
    • DELETE FROM t1, t2 USING t1, t2 WHERE;

MySQL Developer Training – Day 3 – First Half

During the first half of day 3, we finished up the material that will be present on the MySQL Developer I examination. I’ve included my notes below:

Day 3

Manipulating Table Structure

Creating Tables

You can create tables from existing tables by adding “SELECT” OR “LIKE” queries to your CREATE TABLE statement.

Some examples:

  • CREATE TABLE `myTable` SELECT * FROM `myExistingTable`;
    • This will create a duplicate of the data in the existing table, but will not copy additional properties of the table, indices, etc. It will copy the column names, data types, etc., though.
  • CREATE TABLE `myTable` SELECT * FROM `myExistingTable` WHERE Population > 2000000;
    • This will create a duplicate of the existing table (with the same caveats listed above), but will only populate it with specific data that is pulled from the SELECT query
  • CREATE TABLE `myTable` SELECT * FROM `myExistingTable` WHERE 0;
    • This will create a duplicate of the existing table without populating any data. Again, it will not copy additional properties, etc.
  • CREATE TABLE `myTable` SELECT `col1`, `col2` FROM `myExistingTable`;
    • This will create a new table using only the columns that are requested in the SELECT query and will populate the table
    • You can specify “table-wide” features in the CREATE TABLE statement (ENGINE, CHARSET, COLLATE, etc., but cannot specify column-specific information, like PRIMARY KEY, INDEX, etc.)
  • CREATE TABLE `myTable` LIKE `myExistingTable`;
    • This will create an exact duplicate of the structure of your existing table
    • Foreign key constraints are not copied with LIKE statements

Temporary Tables

You can create a temporary table for temporary use.

  • Temporary tables are only available during the current session. They will be removed from the server when your session is terminated for any reason (time-out, server shuts down, you close your connection, etc.)
  • Temporary tables are only visible to the current session
    • They do not show up in the SHOW TABLES statement
  • The name of a temporary table can be the same as the name of an existing table in your database
    • Doing so will cause you not to be able to access the original table while the temporary table exists

Altering Table Structures

  • You can add new columns to your table using the ADD statement
  • You can remove columns from your table using the DROP statement
    • ALTER TABLE EU_Countries DROP Id;
  • You can modify column properties
    • ALTER TABLE EU_Countries MODIFY NewPopulation BIGINT(12) NOT NULL;

You can perform multiple alterations at the same time, adding, dropping, modifying, etc. all in one statement.

If you have multiple operations to perform, you should make sure to consolidate them into a single ALTER statement, because each ALTER statement completely rebuilds the table.

During execution of an ALTER statement, a write-lock is enforced on the table, but users can still read the information.

You can also use the CHANGE clause instead of the MODIFY clause, but it has a different syntax:

Renaming Tables

You can rename a table with an ALTER TABLE statement, as well.


Or, you can simply use the RENAME TABLE statement:


Using the RENAME TABLE statement, you can rename multiple tables at once:

RENAME TABLE t1 TO t2, t2 TO t1, tmp TO t2;

Removing Tables

Using the DROP command, you can remove a table:


You can drop multiple tables at once

Foreign Keys

A foreign key is a column in a table that points/refers to a column in a parent table

  • Foreign keys should be indexed
  • InnoDB engine supports foreign key constraints, protecting the integrity of those foreign keys
    • In order to take advantage of the foreign key constraints, both the parent table and the child table must use the InnoDB engine
    • CREATE TABLE CountryParent
      (Code CHAR(3) NOT NULL,
      Name CHAR(52) NOT NULL,
      PRIMARY KEY (Code)
      ) ENGINE=InnoDB;CREATE TABLE CityChild (
      Name CHAR(35) NOT NULL,
      CountryCode CHAR(3) NOT NULL,
      FOREIGN KEY(CountryCode)
      REFERENCES CountryParent(Code)
      ) ENGINE = InnoDB;
    • Using ON UPDATE CASCADE will cause all of the child’s information to be updated automatically if the parent’s information is updated
    • Using ON DELETE CASCADE will cause all of the child’s information to be automatically removed if the parent’s information is removed
  • Both columns (the parent table’s column and the child table’s foreign key column) should have the same data type

Manipulating Table Data

Inserting information into tables

  • Using the INSERT statement, you can insert new rows into a table
    INSERT INTO table_name [(column_list)] VALUES (value_list);
  • You can insert multiple rows of information with a single INSERT statement:
    INSERT INTO table_name [(column_list)] VALUES (value_list1),(value_list2),(value_list3);
  • You can use a different syntax for the INSERT statement:
    INSERT INTO table_name SET column_name=’value‘, column_name=’value‘…;
  • You can also insert information from one table into another table:
    INSERT INTO table2 SELECT * FROM table1;
    INSERT INTO table2 [(column_list)] SELECT [(column_list)] FROM table1;
  • LAST_INSERT_ID() will retrieve the last auto_incremented id from the last insert that you performed
    • If you perform a multiple row insert, LAST_INSERT_ID() will return the first ID from your insert statement, rather than retrieving the highest value

Removing information from tables

  • Using the DELETE statement, you can remove existing rows from a table
  • DELETE FROM table_name [WHERE where_condition][ORDER BY…][LIMIT row_count];

Altering information in tables

  • Using the UPDATE statement, you can change the information in specific rows
  • UPDATE table_name SET column_name = column_value [WHERE…] [ORDER BY…] [LIMIT…];
  • You can use the REPLACE INTO command to perform updates and inserts at the same time if you name a PRIMARY KEY or UNIQUE element within your column list
    • If an item specified in your values already exists as a unique item in your table, that row will be deleted and a new one will be created with the new information you supply
      • It will not use any of the information that was in the previous version of the row. It will only insert the information you supply
    • If no match is found, it will insert a new row
  • INSERT with ON DUPLICATE KEY command

Emptying a table

TRUNCATE TABLE will efficiently empty out a table


What is a transaction?

  • When concurrent statements are needed
  • Mechanism for grouping multiple statements
    • groups multiple statements together that will all be executed together
  • All or none succeed
    • If an error occurs on any of the statements within your transaction, then the entire transaction will fail
  • Execute if all good
  • Cancel if error or incomplete

A good example of transactions is a bank transfer

  • In order to transfer funds from a checking account to a savings account, it needs to be handled as a single transaction:
    • First, you need to make sure that there are sufficient funds in the checking account
    • Next, you need to withdraw the money from the checking account
    • Finally, you need to add that money into the savings account
  • If any of those actions fail, you need to void the entire transaction

You can use the SHOW ENGINES command to see which database engines support transactions


  • Atomic
    • All statements execute successfully or are canceled as a unit
  • Consistent
    • Database that is in a consistent state when a transaction begins, is left in a consistent state by the transaction
    • If you subtract something from one area and add it to another area, you need to be sure that the total is still the same as it was before you started
  • Isolated
    • One transaction does not affect another
  • Durable
    • All changes made by transaction that complete successfully are recorded properly in database
    • Changes are not lost

Transaction Commands

    • Begins the transaction, meaning that any statements that fall between “START TRANSACTION” and “COMMIT” will be treated as a single transaction
    • START TRANSACTION temporarily suspends AUTOCOMMIT, meaning that nothing will be committed until you explicitly commit the information
    • Is only necessary if AUTOCOMMIT is turned on
    • Can be aliased as “BEGIN” or “BEGIN WORK”
    • Whenever you use “START TRANSACTION”, it implicitly commits any items that came before
    • Execute and finalize all of the statements in the transaction
    • Cancel all of the statements that are part of the transaction
    • AUTOCOMMIT is, by default, set to 1
    • If AUTOCOMMIT is turned on, each statement is treated as a transaction and will be automatically committed if the statement executes successfully
      • Statements that include multiple commands will be rolled back entirely if anything within that statement fails

Isolation Levels

  • Concurrent transactions can cause problems
  • Storage engines implement isolation levels
    • Controls level of visibility between transactions
    • May vary per database servers
  • Three common problems
    • “Dirty” read – seeing changes that have not been committed
    • Non-repeatable read
    • Phantom row – rows that have been added from another thread during your transaction
  • InnoDB implements four isolation levels
    • Read uncommitted
      • You can see changes from another thread’s transaction that have not yet been committed
    • Read committed
      • You cannot see changes that have not been committed, but after it’s been committed, you will see the change, even if you have read the row during your transaction
    • Repeatable read
      • You will not see changes from others’ transactions on any rows that you have read during your transaction
    • Serializable
      • Other transactions will not affect your transaction in any way. Rows selected by one transaction cannot be changed by other transactions until the original transaction has completed
  • Setting the isolation level
    • Use the –transaction-isolation option
  • MVCC – Multi-version concurrency control
    • A method of isolating sessions from each other during transactions

Locking Concepts

  • A locking mechanism prevents problems with concurrent data access
  • Locks are managed by the server
    • Allows access to one client and locks others out
  • InnoDB supports two types of locking
    • Lock in share mode – locks each row with a shared lock
      • Other people can still read the row(s), but no one (including yourself) can update anything within those rows until all locks are released
      • If you attempt to read a row by using a WHERE clause that includes something other than an index, then all rows in the table will be locked
    • For update – locks each row with an exclusive lock
      • Other people can still read the row, but only you have permission to update the row until you release the lock
      • SELECT counter_field FROM child_codes FOR UPDATE;
        UPDATE child_codes SET counter_field = counter_field + 1;

MySQL Developer Training – Day 2

I didn’t take any notes during the first day of class, as we really only went over a lot of introductory information. However, I started taking notes at the beginning of day two, and tried to be pretty thorough. I hope they help a bit.

Day 2

Data Type Overview

Three Major Categories:

  • Numeric
    • Integer
      • Tinyint
        • 1 byte
      • Smallint
        • 2 bytes
      • Mediumint
        • 3 bytes
      • Int
        • 4 bytes
      • Bigint
        • 8 bytes
        • Bigints are used for all internal mathematic operations within MySQL
    • Floating-point (approximate numbers)
      • Float (4 bytes)
      • Double (8 bytes)
      • Floats are generally inaccurate. For instance, inserting a value of “0.99” will actually create a value of 0.99000000953674
      • Floats will not be limited by the amount of digits you “set” when creating the column. The amount of digits you set is simply used for formatting
    • Fixed-point
      • Decimal
      • Fixed
      • Fixed-point digits will be limited by the amount of digits you “set” when creating the column. For instance, if you specify a column as DEC(4,2), it will not allow you to store the number 100. The largest value it can store is 99.99
    • BIT
      • Column width is the number of bits per value
  • Character/Binary (strings)
    • Binary elements are made up of characters, although you don’t generally manipulate the individual characters
    • CHAR – Stores a fixed number of character locations, no matter what value you give it.
      • Limited to a length of 255 characters
      • More efficient in MyISAM, because you are storing a set number of characters each time – also helps prevent fragmentation issues
    • VARCHAR – Stores a variable number of characters, up to the limit that you set when creating the table
      • If the strictness mode is turned on, it will throw an error when attempting to insert a string longer than your limit
      • If strictness mode is turned off, it will truncate the string before inserting it into the database
      • Limited to a maximum length of 65,555 characters
    • TINYTEXT – up to 255 characters
    • TEXT – up to 65,535 characters
    • MEDIUMTEXT – up to 16,777,215 characters
    • LONGTEXT – up to 4,294,967,295 characters
    • ENUM – enumarated values
      • You specify the possible values, which are treated as their numerical equivalents when evaluated
      • You can store up to 65,535 possible values for an enumerated column
      • Only one of the enumerated values can be selected in each row
    • SET – list of string values
      • You specify the possible values, as you do in ENUM
      • However, with SET, you can select multiple values for each row
      • The numerical values of a SET are stored as BIT switches rather than consecutive numbers
  • Temporal
    • TIME
      • HH:MM:SS
      • Is not necessarily an indication of time of day. This can accept times longer than 23:59:59, because it is simply an indication of amount of time
      • Can be negative or positive
      • ‘-838:59:59’ to ‘838:59:59’
    • YEAR
      • Two or four digits
      • Indicating a two-digit value will be interpreted in a range from 1970-2069
      • 1901-2155 (for year(4)), 1970-2069 (for year(2))
    • DATE
      • ‘YYYY-MM-DD’ – can only accept dates in this format
      • ‘1000-01-01’ TO ‘9999-12-31’
      • ‘YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS’ – can only accept datetimes in this format
      • Time in this data type is limited to time of day. Highest value is 23:59:59 and lowest value is 0
      • ‘1000-01-01 00:00:00 to ‘9999=12-31 23:59:59’
      • If given no value when creating or updating a timestamp column, it will automatically assign the current system date/time
      • No point in having more than one timestamp column, as they will all end up with the same value
      • ‘1970-01-01 00:00:00’ to mid-year 2037

You want to choose the most appropriate data type (whichever you will be using in that column the most)

Each table must have at least one column. The columns must have a name and a data type.

Precision and scale of numbers must be considered carefully when creating numeric data types

Numbers must be set up as either signed or unsigned. Signed numbers will use an equal amount of negative and positive values. In other words, a tinyint (1 byte) will range from -128 to 127 if set as signed. Unsigned will range from 0 to 255. If you will not be using negative values, you should set the column as unsigned.

To store a binary number in a column, you should specify it by beginning your value with “b”, then wrapping the value in single quotes. For example: INSERT INTO bits VALUES(b’0101′);

To store a hexidecimal number in a column, you should specify it by beginning your value with “x”.

Character Sets

A character set is a named encoded character

Each character is mapped to a specific number in a character set.

ASCII is the same as Latin1, which is close to the lower bit range of UTF-8

A character set is actually specified on a column-by-column basis within MySQL.

Character set controls sort order, based on the numerical equivalent of each character

Binary String Data Types

Binary strings are strings of characters that are intended to be interpreted as a whole, rather than by character

Binary Types

  • Binary
  • Variable Binary
  • Tinyblob
  • Blob
  • Mediumblob
  • Longblob

No character set or collation is associated with binary data

The Meaning of NULL

  • NULL can set data types to allow missing values
  • NULL can be an empty query result
  • Conceptually has several different meanings
    • no value
    • unknown value
    • missing value
    • out of range
    • not applicable
    • no column
  • Two categories
    • Unknown
    • Not applicable

Primary key columns cannot allow NULL

Unique columns can allow NULL

SQL Expressions

Numeric expressions

  • Literal Values
    • Exact-value
    • Approximate value
    • Numerical expressions with NULL usually return NULL
  • Expressions with NULL will return NULL
  • Results depend on literal values
  • SELECT 1.1 + 2.2 = 3.3, 1.1E0 + 2.2E0 = 3.3E0;
    • 1, 0 (true, false)

Mixing numbers with strings

  • MySQL is capable of converting strings into numerical values, but it uses extra resources
    • You can compare numbers with strings (1=’1′)
    • You can perform mathematical operations on numbers and strings (1+’1′, 1-‘1’, etc.)
    • You should avoid that if possible

Comparison Operations

  • x >=5 AND x<=10 is not necessarily the same as x BETWEEN 5 AND 10
    • The first expression will not necessarily be optimized when querying the database
    • The second expression will always be optimized
  • BETWEEN will include the indices (so it will return anything with 5 as the key and 10 as the key, and everything in between)
  • When using BETWEEN, you must put the lowest value first

Literal strings are quoted

  • You can generally use single or double quotes to wrap your literal strings
  • If ANSI_QUOTES is enabled through MySQL, then values must be wrapped by single quotes and references to columns, etc. must be wrapped by double quotes
  • If ANSI_QUOTES is enabled, wrapping values with double quotes will cause the query to fail

String comparisons

  • Depends on character set and collation
  • The default is set to be case-insensitive
  • Therefore, an expression like “Hello”=”hello” will evaluate as true
  • You can change the character encoding when establishing a connection
    • SET collation_connection = latin1_german2_ci;
    • To compare two strings that are not identical, but are equal (“Hello” vs. “hello” or “Dusseldorf” vs. “Dⁿsseldorf”), you can set the collation to latin1_bin (which will not convert binary information to characters when comparing) or latin1_general_cs (which will still consider accented characters to be the same as their unaccented equivalents, but will not consider lowercase characters to be equal to uppercase characters)
  • Using the “LIKE” operator
    • Percent character (%) – Any character(s) wildcard – the wildcard can match multiple characters
      • LIKE ‘w%ll’ will match “well”, “wall”, “whole lot of hell”
    • Underscore character (_) – Will only match a single character
      • LIKE ‘d_g’ will match ‘dog’, but will not match ‘dung’
  • You can use regular expressions to compare strings in MySQL
    • REGEXP
    • RLIKE

Temporal Operations

Functions can be invoked in MySQL expressions

Within MySQL, functions should be followed directly by an open parens. By default, no space is allowed between function name and parens

  • You can use an IF function

IF(1 > 0 , ‘YES’, ‘NO’);

SELECT name FROM country

ORDER BY IF(code=’USA’,1,2), name;

Will order by whether or not the name is equal to “USA” first, then will order by name

  • You can also use “CASE” statements
    CASE case_expr WHEN when_expr THEN result WHEN when_expr THEN result ELSE result ENDSELECT name FROM country
    ORDER BY CASE code
    WHEN Code = ‘USA’ THEN ‘United States’
    WHEN Continent = ‘Europe’ THEN ‘Europe’
    ELSE ‘Rest of the world’
    END AS Area,
    SUM(GNP), SUM(Population) FROM Country GROUP BY Area;

Numerical Functions

  • Mathematical operations (add, subtract, divide, etc.)
  • Common functions
    • TRUNCATE()
    • FLOOR() – Returns the greatest integer that is less than the given value
    • CEILING() – Returns the smallest integer that is greater than the given value
    • ROUND()
      • By default, this will round to the nearest integer
      • If you specify a second parameter, it will round to the nearest number with the specified number of decimal places. If you insert a negative number, it will round away from the decimal (in other words, ROUND(15.75,-1) will round to 20 – the nearest 10)
    • RAND() – Returns a random number

String Functions

    • LENGTH returns the number of bytes in a character string
    • CHAR_LENGTH returns the number of characters in a character string
  • ELT() – Allows you to select an item from a list
    • ELT(column_value,’1st’,’2nd’,’3rd’…)
    • If column_value is equal to 1, then the function will return “1st”, if column_value is equal to 2, then the function will return “2nd”, etc.
    • ELT is 1-based, not 0-based
    • CONCAT() will simply combine all of the given arguments with no separators
      • If NULL is returned by any of the given arguments, then the entire CONCAT string will return NULL
    • CONCAT_WS() will combine all of the given arguments with a separator, which is specified as the first argument in the function
      • This function will simply skip NULL elements and not insert a separator for NULL elements
      • To concatenate a group of elements that may contain NULL anywhere, you can use CONCAT_WS(”,your_values), using a blank separator
  • STRCOMP (string compare) – compare two strings to see if they are equal, less than or equal to
    • Will return -1 if the first one is less than the second
    • Will return 0 if they are equal
    • Will return 1 if the first one is greater than the second

Temporal Functions

  • NOW() – Returns the current MySQL timestamp from the system clock
  • GET_FORMAT() – Shows us how dates and times are generally formatted in a specific region of the world

NULL-Related Functions

    • ISNULL returns 0 if something is not null and 1 if it is
    • IFNULL accepts two parameters. The first parameter is the item that will be evaluated and the second item is the string that will be returned if the first returns as null
    • SELECT IFNULL(Continent,’Grand Total’) ContinentName, SUM(Population) FROM Country
      GROUP BY Continent WITH ROLLUP;

MySQL Comments

  • You can use a hash character to create a comment that will end at the end of the line
  • You can use C-style comments to comment multiple lines of code
  • Within MySQL, you can set up conditional comments that will show up as comments in all other SQL DBMAs, but will be executed within MySQL
    • /*! This is not a comment to MySQL, but is in all other SQL DBMAs */
    • /*!50002 This comment will only be executed by MySQL version 5.0002 */


Using “INFORMATION_SCHEMA”, you can gather various metadata information about your database. Some of the information you can select is:

| COLUMN_NAME          | 
| TABLE_CATALOG        | 
| TABLE_SCHEMA         | 
| TABLE_NAME           | 
| CHECK_OPTION         | 
| IS_UPDATABLE         | 
| DEFINER              | 
| SECURITY_TYPE        | 

You can also use SHOW and DESCRIBE commands to show specific information from the database.

From the command prompt (outside of the MySQL client), you can call a program called “mysqlshow” to show you the information in your MySQL installation.

C:\Documents and Settings\Student>mysqlshow -u root -p 
Enter password: **** 
|     Databases      | 
| information_schema | 
| mysql              | 
| test               | 
| test2              | 
| world              | 

C:\Documents and Settings\Student>mysqlshow -u root -p world 
Enter password: **** 
Database: world 
|     Tables      | 
| city            | 
| country         | 
| countrylanguage | 
| students        | 

Database Design and Information

A database is simply a directory within the filesystem

Schema is considered a synonym of database in MySQL

Two ways to approach database design:

  1. You need to convert something else (another kind of database, a spreadsheet, etc.)
  2. You are creating the database from scratch

Four basic relational types:

  1. one pointing to one (1->1)
  2. one pointing to many (1->M)
  3. many pointing to one (M->1)
  4. many pointing to many (M->M)

Within a database, you can only structurally manage a M->1 relationship (1->1 is a subset of that)

If you have a M->M relationship, then you should set up an intermediary table to relate between the two tables


First Normal Form (1NF) – contains no repeating groups within rows

Second Normal Form (2NF) – normalize at the first level and every non-key (supporting) value is dependent on the primary key value

Third Normal Form (3NF) – normalized at the first and second level, dependent solely on the primary key and no other non-key (supporting) value

Identifier Syntax

  • Alias
  • Database
  • Column
  • Index

May be quoted or unquoted

Can use any alphanumeric characters, including $ and _. Anything using any characters other than that must be quoted.

You can access tables from other databases on the same server by qualifying the tablename:

SELECT * FROM world.Country;

Building Tables

General syntax for creating a table:

  • CREATE TABLE <table> (
    <column_name> <column type> [<column options>],
    [<column_name> <column_type> [<column_options>],…,]
    [<index list>]
    )[<table options>];
  • CREATE TABLE CountryLanguage (
    CountryCode CHAR(3) NOT NULL,
    Language CHAR(30) NOT NULL,
    Percentage FLOAT(3,1) NOT NULL,
    PRIMARY KEY(CountryCode, Language)
    ) ENGINE = MyISAM COMMENT=’Lists Language Spoken’;
  • Several options available
    • ENGINE
  • Cannot create an auto_increment column that is not indexed